Behold: the Butterfly Alphabet. Norwegian nature photographer Kjell Bloch Sandved has an enormous collection of butterfly images, and one day he noticed that many of the natural shapes in their beautiful wing patterns resembled letters of the alphabet. So he created the Butterfly Alphabet, featuring all 26 letters in the English alphabet, plus 10 single-digit numbers from 0 to 9.
View the full alphabet here: http://bit.ly/17q89PHvia My Modern Met
Researchers have discovered a type B Clostridium perfringens bacteria for the first time in a human with multiple sclerosis and have found high levels of the same bacterial strain in many patients with MS, suggesting the bacteria may trigger or exacerbate symptoms of the disease.
A team of scientists examined almost 650 dementia patients and assessed when each one had been diagnosed with the condition. The study was carried out by researchers from the University and Nizam’s Institute of Medical Sciences in Hyderabad (India).
They found that people who spoke two or more languages experienced a later onset of Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia and frontotemporal dementia.
The bilingual advantage extended to illiterate people who had not attended school. This confirms that the observed effect is not caused by differences in formal education.
It is the largest study so far to gauge the impact of bilingualism on the onset of dementia - independent of a person’s education, gender, occupation and whether they live in a city or in the country, all of which have been examined as potential factors influencing the onset of dementia.
Natural brain training
The team of researchers say further studies are needed to determine the mechanism, which causes the delay in the onset of dementia. The researchers suggest that bilingual switching between different sounds, words, concepts, grammatical structures and social norms constitutes a form of natural brain training, likely to be more effective than any artificial brain training programme.
However, studies of bilingualism are complicated by the fact that bilingual populations are often ethnically and culturally different from monolingual societies. India offers in this respect a unique opportunity for research. In places like Hyderabad, bilingualism is part of everyday life: knowledge of several languages is the norm and monolingualism an exception.
These findings suggest that bilingualism might have a stronger influence on dementia that any currently available drugs. This makes the study of the relationship between bilingualism and cognition one of our highest priorities. -Thomas Bak, School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences
The study, published in Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology, was supported by the Indian Department of Science and Technology and by the Centre for Cognitive Aging and Cognitive Epidemiology (CCACE) at the University of Edinburgh. It was led by Suvarna Alladi, DM, at the Nizam’s Institute of Medical Sciences in Hyderabad.
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omg i am laughing so hard at the Miss Universe costume category
you got poland lookin nice
Namibia workin it
Costa Rica goin big, what did you expect
Haiti fuckin rockin it
Great Britain got damn
Switzerland hell yeah
we had to be a fucking transformer
ive never been more proud to be an american tbh
Teachable moments: Salk took risks in testing vaccine that corralled polio
Global effort to end the scourge of infantile paralysis took many risks
It is difficult to remember the fear that a virus, poliomyelitis, struck into the hearts of Americans during the early 1950s. Its impact on children, which led to it being called infantile paralysis, sent helpless chills through every community as springtime approached.
Parents learned the “belly button” test, a simple question they asked of their children who went to bed with a cold and awoke fevered and weak the next morning. They asked, “Can you lift your head and look at your belly button?”
In the summer of 1952, 58,000 children (nearly triple the historical annual average of cases in the U.S.) could not lift their heads. They were infected with polio and admitted to a hospital while the virus ran its course; there is no cure. More than 3,000 died that year; thousands more suffered a range of lasting effects.
Polio was first recognized as a disease in 1840, but epidemics were not known until the late 19th century. By the 20th century, it became one of our most feared health threats, as sanitation systems were inadequate to deal with the rise in town and city crowding.
Franklin D. Roosevelt was stricken by a paralytic illness in 1921, when he was 39; his legs were paralyzed. Though the diagnosis of poliomyelitis was later questioned because of his age, Roosevelt’s illness provided the catalyst for an unprecedented assault on a disease when he established the March of Dimes in 1938 to raise money to treat and fight the disease.
The $233 million the organization raised between 1938 and 1955 resulted in success when Jonas Salk’s vaccine proved effective in boosting children’s immune systems to ward off infection.
Salk, who was born on Oct. 28, 1914, was one of many researchers racing to understand the disease and find a vaccine. It was a race where extraordinary risks were taken.
“He felt that he couldn’t ask other parents to let him give this vaccine to their children if he wasn’t willing to first try it on his own,” said Dr. Darrell Salk, Jonas Salk’s son, in an extremely rare 2004 newspaper interview. While the risks would not be tolerated today, in 1952, Salk and his researchers tested their vaccines on themselves and on Salk’s family.
Salk’s dead virus approach, because it could be mass-produced sooner and more effectively, became the first large-scale vaccination program when it was announced on Apr. 12, 1955. Two other vaccine efforts, Hilary Koprowski’s live virus injection and Albert Sabin’s live virus oral vaccine, were not ready for production, though both later became successful vaccines.
It was a triumph of facts over fear. In 1954, a widespread test that included nearly 2 million children went ahead despite fearful warnings from a range of critics scientific and popular, including a damning radio broadcast from Walter Winchell on the eve of the trial describing the caches of “little white coffins” held in readiness for disaster.
The number of polio cases fell from 35,000 in 1953 to 5,600 in 1957, and in 1961, there were 161 cases in the U.S.
Salk became one of the most celebrated scientists in America and established the Salk Institute in San Diego as a center for biological research.
The global effort to control and eradicate the disease has not ceased; there were 223 cases around the world in 2012 and 301 so far this year.
While it sounds like a bizarre solution, the procedure called osteo-odonto-keratoprothesis has helped 43-year-old Ian Tibbetts, who lost his vision as a result of severe cornea damage following an accident, to see his four-year-old sons for the first time. The surgery, which isn’t new but only works for certain types of blindness where the retina is still functioning and the cornea is damaged, involves two parts: first the tooth and some of the jaw is removed, a lens is inserted using a drill and the tooth is implanted under the eye socket. A few months later once it’s grown tissue and a blood supply, the damaged cornea is removed and the tooth is stitched into the eyeball.
Read more: http://bit.ly/174YhKS via News.com.au. Original image: Walker George Films